Crawl, Walk, Run Theory of Skill Development

  • Print Friendly and PDF
  • Sharebar
  • Print Friendly and PDF

The inspiration for this article comes from Situational Awareness Matters member and Fire Chief, Todd Johnson, and the members of the Woodbury Fire Department. I was invited to observe a skills-based training evaluation that was more than a year in the making and involved over 100 practice exercises. The crews were dispatched to a structure fire. They arrived, in a realistic staggered timeline at a 40×40 building (a parks and recreation warming house) that was full of simulated smoke. The objectives were simple: Vent, enter, search, attack. Seems simple enough. So why did they perform over 100 practices exercise to get it right?

The answer lays with the Woodbury Fire Department Training Officer Chris Klein. During officers meetings, evaluations were being held on firefighter performance at structure fires and the officers were contemplating the introduction of positive pressure ventilation as a new firefighting strategy. Command team realizes there are a small number of critical success factors at a structure fire incident and these factors could be documented and firefighters could be trained for success using a list of critical tasks and repetitive training.


The command team developed a checklist of critical tasks and used that to launch the new positive pressure ventilation training initiative. It started with handing the crews the checklist and having them walk and talk through each task in civilian clothes. This was a cognitive, hands-off exercise designed to get the crews familiar with the tasks on the list.


During subsequent drills the crews donned their gear and performed the tasks with checklists in-hand. Read the item, perform the task. Read the next item, perform the task. This was done in a repetitive fashion until the entire task list could be performed without the benefit of the checklist.


Finally, the crews got to perform the tasks at realistic simulations. Initially using simulated smoke and fire and eventually at the St. Paul Training Center where they burned Class A materials. When the stress level is raised, it is expected that some items on the list may be overlooked and some “old habits” might surface. The training evolutions provided opportunities to hit the pause button and fix problems in real-time.

The underlying objective of their training was to introduce the concept of positive pressure ventilation and dynamic risk assessment (essentially knowing when to be offensive and when to be defensive). Here is an interview with the training exercise developer, Captain Chris Klein.

Captain Klein Interview


On the day I observed their training, chief officers from the neighboring fire departments Fire Chief Greg Malmquist from the Lake Elmo Fire Department and Deputy Fire Chief Kevin Wold from the Oakdale Fire Department served as evaluators. The evaluators were provided with the checklists and graded the performance of crews. The performances were not flawless but the crews did perform all the critical criteria on the checklists. Here are three videos of the evolutions:

Evolution 1

Evolution 2

Evolution 2 with interior smoke conditions

Outside Evaluators

Using experienced chief officers from neighboring departments was a very smart decision for several reasons. First, internal personnel become desensitized to internal evaluators. When the evaluators are from the outside there is a heightened level of awareness about being watched and evaluated. Second, external evaluators are able to see things that internal evaluators may not see because they are so invested in their ways of doing things they cannot see their own shortcomings.


The mission of Situational Awareness Matters is simple: Help first responders see the bad things coming… in time to change the outcome.

Safety begins with SA! 


Share your comments on this article in the “Leave a Reply” box below. If you want to send me incident pictures, videos or have an idea you’d like me to research and write about, contact me. I really enjoy getting feedback and supportive messages from fellow first responders. It gives me the energy to work harder for you.


Phone: 612-548-4424
Facebook Fan Page:
Twitter: @SAMatters
LinkedIn: Rich Gasaway
YouTube: SAMattersTV
iTunes: SAMatters Radio

About Rich Gasaway

Richard B. Gasaway served 33 years on the front lines as a firefighter, EMT-Paramedic and fire chief. He earned his Doctor of Philosophy degree while studying how individuals, teams and organizations develop and maintain situational awareness and make decisions in high stress, high consequence, time compressed environments. Dr. Gasaway is widely considered to be one of the nation's leading authorities on first responder situational awareness and decision making. His material has been featured and referenced in more than 400 book chapters, research projects, journal articles, podcasts, webinars and videos. His research and passion to improve workplace safety through improved situational awareness is unrivaled. Dr. Gasaway's leadership and safety programs have been presented to more than 42,000 first responders, emergency managers, medical providers, military personnel, aviation employees, industrial workers and business leaders throughout North America, Europe, Asia and Australia.
This entry was posted in Checklists, Safety, Situational awareness, Training and tagged , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

2 Responses to Crawl, Walk, Run Theory of Skill Development

  1. Todd Johnson says:

    Rich and SA Subscribers:

    I wanted to express my appreciation for the work Rich Gasaway has put into improving the fire service. Our training program was partially influenced by Rich’s research findings. We (Woodbury Fire, MN) enjoy sharing what has worked for us and welcome your thoughts. We could not have accomplished this without the creativity and hard work from our staff. Our intent is to build on what we have learned in 2012.

    Stay Safe!

    Chief Todd Johnson
    Woodbury Fire, MN

    • Rich Gasaway says:

      Chief Johnson,

      Thank you for the kind words of support. It have truly enjoyed working with your department and the training I had an opportunity to observe was amazing. Your companies did so many things well that I could write a dozen articles just on what I observed… and maybe I will! Keep on doing what you’re doing. You’re building a casualty resilient organization. ~ Rich

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>